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Matthew Bruce

Principal Scientist/Engineer






B.S. Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1991

M.S. Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic University, 1993

Ph.D. Bioengineering, University of Washington, 2004

Matthew Bruce's Website



2000-present and while at APL-UW

Modeling the acoustic field produced by diagnostic ultrasound arrays in plane and diverging wave modes

Lai, T.-Y., M. Bruce, M.A. Averkiou, "Modeling the acoustic field produced by diagnostic ultrasound arrays in plane and diverging wave modes," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 66, 1158-1169, doi:10.1109/TUFFC.2019.2908831, 2019.

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1 Jul 2019

Recent advances in ultrafast contrast imaging have facilitated innovations, such as superresolution imaging and ultrafast contrast-enhanced Doppler imaging. Combining plane and diverging wave imaging (PWI/DWI) with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) may offer improvements in image quality in applications such as 3-D THI and harmonic color flow. However, no studies have reported simulations of the nonlinear acoustic fields produced by diagnostic arrays in either plane or diverging wave mode. The aim of this study is to model three typical diagnostic arrays that are used in clinical practice and research, Verasonics L11-4v linear array, C5-2v convex array, and P4-2v phased array with the Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov (KZK) equation. We have two specific objectives: first, to investigate whether there is increased bubble destruction due to the nature of the plane and diverging fields in contrast imaging; and second, to investigate the feasibility of combining PWI/DWI and THI by quantifying the second harmonic generated by these fields. We showed in linear simulations that using such arrays for ultrafast contrast imaging produced pressures that are greater in the near field and lower in the far field than those of focused beams and thus may induce more near-field bubble destruction. In nonlinear simulations, the second harmonic produced by ultrafast THI was found to be 2–16 dB lower than that of focused beams for all arrays considered when operated at the same MI. This moderate difference of the second harmonic between PWI/DWI and focused ultrasound suggests that it is feasible to combine PWI/DWI and THI.

Deep learning for super-resolution vascular ultrasound imaging

van Sloun, R.J.G., O. Solomon, M. Bruce, Z.Z. Khaing, Y.C. Eldar, and M. Mischi, "Deep learning for super-resolution vascular ultrasound imaging," Proc., IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 12-17 May, Brighton, United Kingdom, doi:10.1109/ICASSP.2019.8683813 (IEEE, 2019).

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12 May 2019

Based on the intravascular infusion of gas microbubbles, which act as ultrasound contrast agents, ultrasound localization microscopy has enabled super resolution vascular imaging through precise detection of individual microbubbles across numerous imaging frames. However, analysis of high-density regions with significant overlaps among the microbubble point spread functions typically yields high localization errors, constraining the technique to low-concentration conditions. As such, long acquisition times are required for sufficient coverage of the vascular bed. Algorithms based on sparse recovery have been developed specifically to cope with the overlapping point-spread-functions of multiple microbubbles. While successful localization of densely-spaced emitters has been demonstrated, even highly optimized fast sparse recovery techniques involve a time-consuming iterative procedure. In this work, we used deep learning to improve upon standard ultrasound localization microscopy (Deep-ULM), and obtain super-resolution vascular images from high-density contrast-enhanced ultrasound data. Deep-ULM is suitable for real-time applications, resolving about 1250 high-resolution patches (128 x 128 pixels) per second using GPU acceleration.

Ultrasound imaging of micro bubble activity during sonoporation pulse sequences

Keller, S., M. Bruce, and M.A. Averkiou, "Ultrasound imaging of micro bubble activity during sonoporation pulse sequences," Ultrasound Med. Biol., 45, 833-845, doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.11.011, 2019.

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1 Mar 2019

Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery using the mechanical action of oscillating and/or collapsing microbubbles has been studied on many different experimental platforms, both in vitro and in vivo; however, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Many groups use sterile, enclosed chambers, such as Opticells and Clinicells, to optimize acoustic parameters in vitro needed for effective drug delivery in vivo, as well as for mechanistic investigation of sonoporation or the use of sound to permeate cell membranes. In these containers, cell monolayers are seeded on one side, and the remainder of the volume is filled with a solution containing microbubbles and a model drug. Ultrasound is then applied to study the effect of different parameters on model drug uptake in cell monolayers. Despite the simplicity of this system, the field has been unable to appropriately address what parameters and microbubble concentrations are most effective at enhancing drug uptake and minimizing cellular toxicity. In this work, a common in vitro sonoporation experimental setup was characterized through quantitative analysis of microbubble-dependent acoustic attenuation in combination with high-frame-rate and high-resolution imaging of bubble activity during sonoporation pulse sequences. The goal was to visualize the effect that ultrasound parameters have on microbubble activity. It was observed that under literature-derived sonoporation conditions (0.1–1 MPa, 20–1000 cycles and 10,000 to 10,000,000 microbubbles/mL), there is strong and non-linear acoustic attenuation, as well as bubble destruction, gas diffusion and bubble motion resulting in spatiotemporal pressure and concentration gradients. Ultimately, it was found that the acoustic conditions in common in vitro sonoporation setups are much more complex and confounding than often assumed.

More Publications


Improved Detection of Kidney Stones with Ultrasound

Record of Invention Number: 47629

Matthew Bruce


19 Feb 2016

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center