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Trina Litchendorf

Oceanographer IV

Email

trinal@apl.washington.edu

Phone

206-221-5906

Department Affiliation

Ocean Engineering

Publications

2000-present and while at APL-UW

Statistics of surface divergence and their relation to air–water gas transfer velocity

Asher, W.E., H. Kiang, C.J. Zappa, M.R. Loewen, M.A. Mukto, T.M. Litchendorf, and A.T. Jessup,"Statistics of surface divergence and their relation to air–water gas transfer velocity," J. Geophys. Res., 117, doi:10.1029/2001JC007390, 2012.

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24 May 2012

Air-sea gas fluxes are generally defined in terms of the air/water concentration difference of the gas and the gas transfer velocity, kL. Because it is difficult to measure kL in the ocean, it is often parameterized using more easily measured physical properties. Surface divergence theory suggests that infrared (IR) images of the water surface, which contain information concerning the movement of water very near the air-water interface, might be used to estimate kL. Therefore, a series of experiments testing whether IR imagery could provide a convenient means for estimating the surface divergence applicable to air-sea exchange were conducted in a synthetic jet array tank embedded in a wind tunnel. Gas transfer velocities were measured as a function of wind stress and mechanically generated turbulence; laser-induced fluorescence was used to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide in the top 300 µm of the water surface; IR imagery was used to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of the aqueous skin temperature; and particle image velocimetry was used to measure turbulence at a depth of 1 cm below the air-water interface. It is shown that an estimate of the surface divergence for both wind-shear driven turbulence and mechanically generated turbulence can be derived from the surface skin temperature. The estimates derived from the IR images are compared to velocity field divergences measured by the PIV and to independent estimates of the divergence made using the laser-induced fluorescence data. Divergence is shown to scale with kL values measured using gaseous tracers as predicted by conceptual models for both wind-driven and mechanically generated turbulence.

Near-real-time acoustic monitoring of beaked whales and other cetaceans using a Seaglider

Klinck, H., D.K. Mellinger, K. Klinck, N.M. Bogue, J.C. Luby, W.A. Jump, G.B. Shilling, T. Litchendorf, A.S. Wood, G.S. Schorr, and R.W. Baird, "Near-real-time acoustic monitoring of beaked whales and other cetaceans using a Seaglider," Plos One, 7, e36128, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036128, 2012.

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18 May 2012

In most areas, estimating the presence and distribution of cryptic marine mammal species, such as beaked whales, is extremely difficult using traditional observational techniques such as ship-based visual line transect surveys. Because acoustic methods permit detection of animals underwater, at night, and in poor weather conditions, passive acoustic observation has been used increasingly often over the last decade to study marine mammal distribution, abundance, and movements, as well as for mitigation of potentially harmful anthropogenic effects. However, there is demand for new, cost-effective tools that allow scientists to monitor areas of interest autonomously with high temporal and spatial resolution in near-real time. Here we describe an autonomous underwater vehicle — a glider — equipped with an acoustic sensor and onboard data processing capabilities to passively scan an area for marine mammals in near-real time. The instrument developed here can be used to cost-effectively screen areas of interest for marine mammals for several months at a time. The near-real-time detection and reporting capabilities of the glider can help to protect marine mammals during potentially harmful anthropogenic activities such as seismic exploration for sub-sea fossil fuels or naval sonar exercises. Furthermore, the glider is capable of under-ice operation, allowing investigation of otherwise inaccessible polar environments that are critical habitats for many endangered marine mammal species.

Storm-induced upwelling of high pCO2 waters onto the continental shelf of the western Arctic Ocean and implications for carbonate mineral saturation states

Mathis, J.T., R.S. Pickart, R.H. Byrne, C.L. McNeil, G.W.K. Moore, L.W. Juranek, X. Liu, J. Ma, R.A. Easley, M.M. Elliot, J.N. Cross, S.C. Reisdorph, F. Bahr, J. Morison, T. Lichendorf, and R.A. Feely, "Storm-induced upwelling of high pCO2 waters onto the continental shelf of the western Arctic Ocean and implications for carbonate mineral saturation states," Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, doi:10.1029/2012GL051574, 2012.

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11 Apr 2012

The carbon system of the western Arctic Ocean is undergoing a rapid transition as sea ice extent and thickness decline. These processes are dynamically forcing the region, with unknown consequences for CO2 fluxes and carbonate mineral saturation states, particularly in the coastal regions where sensitive ecosystems are already under threat from multiple stressors. In October 2011, persistent wind-driven upwelling occurred in open water along the continental shelf of the Beaufort Sea in the western Arctic Ocean. During this time, cold (<–1.2°C), salty (>32.4) halocline water — supersaturated with respect to atmospheric CO2 (pCO2 > 550 µatm) and undersaturated in aragonite (< 1.0) was transported onto the Beaufort shelf. A single 10-day event led to the outgassing of 0.18–0.54 Tg-C and caused aragonite undersaturations throughout the water column over the shelf. If we assume a conservative estimate of four such upwelling events each year, then the annual flux to the atmosphere would be 0.72–2.16 Tg-C, which is approximately the total annual sink of CO2 in the Beaufort Sea from primary production. Although a natural process, these upwelling events have likely been exacerbated in recent years by declining sea ice cover and changing atmospheric conditions in the region, and could have significant impacts on regional carbon budgets. As sea ice retreat continues and storms increase in frequency and intensity, further outgassing events and the expansion of waters that are undersaturated in carbonate minerals over the shelf are probable.

More Publications

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center
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