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Bob Spindel

APL-UW Director Emeritus

Professor Emeritus Electrical Engineering and Adjunct Professor Emeritus, Oceanography

Email

spindel@apl.washington.edu

Phone

425-641-9928

Biosketch

Dr. Spindel served as Director of the Applied Physics Laboratory from 1987 to June 2003. His research expertise is underwater acoustics; he has authored or co-authored over 100 scientific and technical publications, and has served as Chief Scientist on many research cruises. Dr. Spindel was awarded the A.B. Wood Medal by the British Institute of Acoustics in 1981, the Gano Dunn Award from The Cooper Union in 1988, the Technical Achievement Award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Oceanic Engineering Society in 1990, and the Walter Munk Award by the Secretary of the Navy and the Oceanography Society in 2001. In 2003 he was awarded the Meritorious Civilian Service Award by the U.S. Navy. He is a Fellow of IEEE, the Acoustical Society of America, and the Marine Technology Society.

Department Affiliation

Director's Office

Education

B.E. Electrical Engineering, The Cooper Union, 1965

M.S. Electrical Engineering, Yale University, 1966

M.Phil. Electrical Engineering, Yale University, 1968

Ph.D. Electrical Engineering, Yale University, 1971

Publications

2000-present and while at APL-UW

Calculation of the reverberation spectrum for Doppler-based sonar

Salin, B.M., M.B. Salin, and R.C. Spindel, "Calculation of the reverberation spectrum for Doppler-based sonar," Acoust. Phys., 58, 220-227, doi:10.1134/S1063771011050150, 2012.

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1 Feb 2012

For monostatic sonar using long pulsed tone signals, the problem of evaluating the spectrum of reverberation due to sound wave scattering by a rough sea surface is solved. Relatively simple computational schemes are proposed, which make it possible (i) to transform the three-dimensional spectra of surface waves to the frequency-angular characteristics of reverberation and (ii) to choose the optimal operating frequency band for a Doppler sonar from the point of view of reverberation. For typical wind wave characteristics measured in shallow water areas, the spectral levels of reverberation are estimated in the frequency band of acoustic signals within 0.4%u20132 kHz.

Investigation of the influence of wind waves on the spectral and angular characteristics of sea surface reverberation from a CW source

Salin, B.M., M.B. Salin, and R.C. Spindel, "Investigation of the influence of wind waves on the spectral and angular characteristics of sea surface reverberation from a CW source," In Proceedings, MTS/IEEE OCEANS 2010, Seattle, 20-23 September, doi:10.1109/OCEANS.2010.5664527 (MTS/IEEE, 2010).

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20 Sep 2010

This research is aimed at providing more reliable predictions of the characteristics of reverberation as a function of frequency and range, as well as propagation path and wind wave characteristics. A theoretical model is derived and is compared to experimental results which consist of simultaneous acoustic and wind wave characteristics measurements.

Experimental study of acoustic forward scattering on a marine shelf

Matveev, A.L. P.I. Korotin, V.I. Turchin, D. Rouseff, and R.C. Spindel, "Experimental study of acoustic forward scattering on a marine shelf," Proceedings, 3rd International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, Athens, Greece, 18-23 June, 284-288 (2009).

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18 Jun 2009

The forward scattering of sound by a moving inhomogeneity can be observed when the inhomogeneity intersects a stationary path between an acoustic source and a receiving array. The scattered field is modeled as a weak perturbation of the direct signal when the inhomogeneity is near the direct path. Often the scattered field is masked by fluctuations in the direct signal. The task of a detection and parameter estimation of a moving inhomogeneity by the processing of acoustic signals as received on linear arrays is considered. After a review of methods, new experimental results are presented. The experiment was performed in the Bierke-Soond Strait of the Baltic in August 2006. The experiment geometry, propagation conditions, and spectra of direct signal fluctuations are discussed. Examples of experimental forward scattering observations obtained via various array-processing techniques are given. Good agreement between parameter estimates and true values is demonstrated for the intersection instant and the inhomgeneity's velocity, length and cross-sectional area. The minimum size of an inhomogeneity that can be observed is obtained.

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A decade of acoustic thermometry in the North Pacific Ocean: Using long-range acoustic travel times to test gyre-scale temperature variability derived from other observations and ocean models

Worcester, P., B.D. Dushaw, R.K. Andrew, B.M. Howe,J.A. Mercer, R.C. Spindel, B. Cornuelle, M. Dzieciuch, T.G. Birdsall, K. Metzger, and D. Menemenlis, "A decade of acoustic thermometry in the North Pacific Ocean: Using long-range acoustic travel times to test gyre-scale temperature variability derived from other observations and ocean models," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 123, 3913, 2008.

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1 Jan 2008

Large-scale, range- and depth-averaged temperatures in the North Pacific Ocean were measured by long-range acoustic transmissions over the decade 1996–2006. Acoustic sources off central California and north of Kauai transmitted to receivers throughout the North Pacific. Even though acoustic travel times are spatially integrating, suppressing mesoscale variability and providing a precise measure of large-scale temperature, the travel times sometimes vary significantly on time scales of only a few weeks. The interannual variability is large, with no consistent warming or cooling trends.

Comparison of the measured travel times with travel times derived from (i) the World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05), (ii) an upper ocean temperature estimate derived from satellite altimetry and in situ profiles, (iii) an analysis provided by the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) project, and (iv) simulation results from a high-resolution configuration of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) show similarities, but also reveal substantial differences. The differences suggest that the data can provide significant additional constraints for numerical ocean simulations. The acoustic data show that WOA05 is a much better estimate of the time–mean hydrography than either the ECCO or POP estimates and provide significantly better time resolution for large-scale ocean variability than can be derived from satellite altimetry and in situ profiles.

Forward scattering observation with partially coherent spatial processing of vertical array signals in shallow water

Matveev, A.L., R.C. Spindel, and D. Rouseff, "Forward scattering observation with partially coherent spatial processing of vertical array signals in shallow water," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., 32, 626-639, doi:10.1109/JOE.2007.897071, 2007.

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1 Jul 2007

In this paper, we address the problem of detecting an inhomogeneity in shallow water by observing changes in the acoustic field as the inhomogeneity passes between an acoustic source and vertical line array of receivers. A signal processing scheme is developed to detect the perturbed field in the presence of the much stronger primary source signal, and to estimate such parameters as the time when the inhomogeneity crosses the source-receiver path, its velocity, and its size. The effectiveness of incoherent, coherent, and partially coherent spatial processing of the array signals is evaluated using models and data obtained from experiments in a lake. The effect of different bottom types is also considered, and it is shown that partially coherent processing can have a significant advantage depending on the bottom type. Estimates of the minimum input signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for which the diffracted signal can be observed are presented.

A decade of acoustic thermometry in the North Pacific Ocean: Using long-range acoustic travel times to test gyre-scale temperature variability derived from other observations and ocean models

Dushaw, B., R. Andrew, B. Howe, J. Mercer, R. Spindel, et al., "A decade of acoustic thermometry in the North Pacific Ocean: Using long-range acoustic travel times to test gyre-scale temperature variability derived from other observations and ocean models," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 121, 3054, 2007.

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1 May 2007

Large-scale temperatures in the North Pacific were measured by long-range acoustic transmissions from 1996–2006. Acoustic sources off California and Kauai transmitted to receivers distributed throughout the North Pacific from 1996–999. Kauai transmissions continued from 2002–2006. Acoustic travel time data are inherently integrating. This averaging suppresses mesoscale variability and provides an accurate measure of large-scale temperature, subject to the limitations of the ray path sampling. At basin scales, the ocean is highly variable, with significant changes occurring at time scales from weeks to years. The interannual variability is large compared to trends in the data. Willis, et al. used objective mapping techniques applied to satellite altimetry and hydrography to derive 0–750 m temperature fields for the global ocean. Travel times equivalent to the measured travel times can be calculated using these fields. The measured and calculated travel times are similar, but also show significant differences. Similar comparisions using travel times derived from the "Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean" (ECCO) model and a high-resolution Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model also show similarities and differences. The ECCO model was constrained by altimetric and profile data by data assimilation, suggesting that the acoustic travel times provide meaningful additional constraints on model behavior.

Problems in acoustic propagation in the ocean: Scattering and chaos

Spindel, R.C., and the NPAL Group, "Problems in acoustic propagation in the ocean: Scattering and chaos," Proceedings, International Symposium on Topical Problems of Nonlinear Wave Physics, St. Petersburg-Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 2-9 August, 112-113, (2005).

9 Aug 2005

Ocean acoustic tomography

Spindel, R.C., "Ocean acoustic tomography," in Sounds in the Sea, edited by H. Medwin, 461-479 (New York, Cambridge University Press, 2005).

1 Jun 2005

Analysis of multipath acoustic field variability and coherence in the finale of broadband basin-scale transmissions in the North Pacific Ocean

Colosi, J.A., A.B. Baggeroer, B.D. Cornuelle, M.A. Dzieciuch, W.H. Munk, P.F. Worcester, B.D. Dushaw, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, R.C. Spindel, T.G. Birdsall, K. Metzger, and A.M.G. Forbes, "Analysis of multipath acoustic field variability and coherence in the finale of broadband basin-scale transmissions in the North Pacific Ocean," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 117, 1538-1564, 2005.

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30 Mar 2005

The statistics of low-frequency, long-range acoustic transmissions in the North Pacific Ocean are presented. Broadband signals at center frequencies of 28, 75, and 84 Hz are analyzed at propagation ranges of 3252 to 5171 km, and transmissions were received on 700 and 1400 m long vertical receiver arrays with 35 m hydrophone spacing. In the analysis we focus on the energetic "finale" region of the broadband time front arrival pattern, where a multipath interference pattern exists. A Fourier analysis of 1 s regions in the finale provide narrowband data for examination as well. Two-dimensional (depth and time) phase unwrapping is employed to study separately the complex field phase and intensity. Because data sampling occured in 20 or 40 min intervals followed by long gaps, the acoustic fields are analyzed in terms of these 20 and 40 min and multiday observation times. An analysis of phase, intensity, and complex envelope variability as a function of depth and time is presented in terms of mean fields, variances, probability density functions (PDFs), covariance, spectra, and coherence. Observations are compared to a random multipath model of frequency and vertical wave number spectra for phase and log intensity, and the observations are compared to a broadband multipath model of scintillation index and coherence.

Statistics and vertical directionality of low-frequency ambient noise at the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory site

Baggeroer, A.B., E.K. Scheer, J.A. Colosi, B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushas, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, W.H. Munk, R.C. Spindel, and P.F. Worcester, "Statistics and vertical directionality of low-frequency ambient noise at the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory site," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 117, 1643-1665, doi:10.1121/1.1855035, 2005

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30 Mar 2005

We examine statistical and directional properties of the ambient noise in the 10%u2013100 Hz frequency band from the NPAL array. Marginal probability densities are estimated as well as mean square levels, skewness and kurtoses in third octave bands. The kurotoses are markedly different from Gaussian except when only distant shipping is present. Extremal levels reached %u223C150 dB re 1 %u03BC Pa, suggesting levels 60dB greater than the mean ambient were common in the NPAL data sets. Generally, these were passing ships. We select four examples: i) quiescent noise, ii) nearby shipping, iii) whale vocalizations and iv) a micro earthquake for the vertical directional properties of the NPAL noise since they are representative of the phenomena encountered. We find there is modest broadband coherence for most of these cases in their occupancy band across the NPAL aperture. Narrowband coherence analysis from VLA to VLA was not successful due to ambiguities. Examples of localizing sources based upon this coherence are included. kw diagrams allow us to use data above the vertical aliasing frequency. Ducted propagation for both the quiescent and micro earthquake (T phase) are identified and the arrival angles of nearby shipping and whale vocalizations. MFP localizations were modestly successful for nearby sources, but long range ones could not be identified, most likely because of signal mismatch in the MFP replica.

Transverse horizontal spatial coherence of deep arrivals at megameter ranges

Andrew, R.K., B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, and the NPAL Group, "Transverse horizontal spatial coherence of deep arrivals at megameter ranges," J. Acoust. Soc., Am., 117, 1511-1526, doi:10.1121/1.1854851, 2005

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30 Mar 2005

Predictions of transverse horizontal spatial coherence from path integral theory are compared with measurements for two ranges between 2000 and 3000 km. The measurements derive from a low-frequency (75 Hz) bottom-mounted source at depth 810 m near Kauai that transmitted m-sequence signals over several years to two bottom-mounted horizontal line arrays in the North Pacific. In this paper we consider the early arriving portion of the deep acoustic field at these arrays. Horizontal coherence length estimates, on the order of 400 m, show good agreement with lengths calculated from theory. These lengths correspond to about 1° in horizontal arrival angle variability using a simple, extended, spatially incoherent source model. Estimates of scintillation index, log-amplitude variance, and decibel intensity variance indicate that the fields were partially saturated. There was no significant seasonal variability in these measures. The scintillation index predictions agree quite well with the dataset estimates; nevertheless, the scattering regime predictions (fully saturated) vary from the regime classification (partially saturated) inferred from observation. This contradictory result suggests that a fuller characterization of scattering regime metrics may be required.

Horizontal refraction of acoustic signals retrieved from North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory billboard array data

Voronich, A.G., V.E. Ostashev, J.A. Colosi, B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushaw, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, W.H. Munk, R.C. Spindel, and P.F. Worcester, "Horizontal refraction of acoustic signals retrieved from North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory billboard array data," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 117, 1527-1537, 2005

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1 Mar 2005

In 1998–1999, a comprehensive low-frequency long-range sound propagation experiment was carried out by the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL). In this paper, the data recorded during the experiment by a billboard acoustic array were used to compute the horizontal refraction of the arriving acoustic signals using both ray- and mode-based approaches. The results obtained by these two approaches are consistent. The acoustic signals exhibited weak (if any) regular horizontal refraction throughut most of the experiment. However, it increased up to 0.4 deg (the sound rays were bent towards the south) at the beginning and the end of the experiment. These increases occurred during midspring to midsummer time and seemed to reflect seasonal trends in the horizontal gradients of the sound speed. The measured standard deviation of the horizontal refraction angles was about 0.37 deg, which is close to an estimate of this standard deviation calculated using 3D modal theory of low-frequency sound propagation through internal gravity waves.

North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory

Worcester, P.F., and R.C. Spindel, "North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 117, 1499-1510, 2005.

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1 Mar 2005

A series of long-range acoustic propagation experiments have been conducted in the North Pacific Ocean during the last 15 years using various combinations of low-frequency, wide-bandwidth transmitters and horizontal and vertical line array receivers, including a 2-dimensional array with a maximum vertical aperture of 1400 m and a horizontal aperture of 3600 m. These measurements were undertaken to further our understanding of the physics of low-frequency, broadband propagation and the effects of environmental variability on signal stability and coherence. In this volume some of the results are presented. In the present paper the central issues these experiments have addressed are briefly summarized.

Acoustic remote sensing of large-scale temperature variability in the North Pacific Ocean

Howe, B.M., B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushaw, M.A. Dzieciuch, D. Menemenlis, J.A. Mercer, W.H. Munk, R.C. Spindel, D. Stammer, P.F. Worcester, and M.R. Zarnetske, "Acoustic remote sensing of large-scale temperature variability in the North Pacific Ocean," Proceedings, Oceans '04, MTS/IEEE Techno-Ocean '04, 1504-1506, doi:10.1109/OCEANS.2004.1406343 (IEEE, 2003).

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9 Nov 2004

Large-scale, depth-averaged temperatures have been measured by long-range acoustic transmissions in the North Pacific Ocean for the past nine years. Acoustic sources located off central California and north of Kauai transmitted to receivers distributed throughout the North Pacific from 1996 through 1999 during the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) project. The Kauai transmissions resumed in early 2002 and are now continuing as part of the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) project; a six-year time series has been obtained so far. Even at long time and large spatial scales the ocean is highly variable. The paths from Kauai to California show a modest cooling trend (longer travel times) until the present time. A path to the northwest showed modest warming and a weak annual cycle from 1999 until early 2003, when a strong annual cycle returned. In retrospect, these changes stemmed from the warming of the central Pacific that occurred in this interval, possibly associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

Comparisons between measured travel times and those predicted using ocean models, constrained by satellite altimeter and other data, show significant similarities and differences. Comparison between upper-ocean Argo profiling float temperatures and the acoustically measured temperature along one path illustrates the strength of the integral measurements, with substantially lower uncertainty. The acoustic data ultimately need to be combined with sea-surface height Argo float data to determine the complementarity of the various data types. In particular, combining the acoustic and Argo data by inverse techniques will quantify the ability of the float data to resolve large-scale, upper-ocean heat content and the ability of the acoustic data to resolve abyssal temperature changes.

Extracting coherent wave fronts from acoustic ambient noise in the ocean

Roux, P., W.A Kuperman, and the NPAL Group, "Extracting coherent wave fronts from acoustic ambient noise in the ocean," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 117, 1565-1581, 2004

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1 Oct 2004

A method to obtain coherent acoustic wave fronts by measuring the space–time correlation function of ocean noise between two hydrophones is experimentally demonstrated. Though the sources of ocean noise are uncorrelated, the time-averaged noise correlation function exhibits deterministic waveguide arrival structure embedded in the time-domain Green's function. A theoretical approach is derived for both volume and surface noise sources. Shipping noise is also investigated and simulated results are presented in deep or shallow water configurations. The data of opportunity used to demonstrate the extraction of wave fronts from ocean noise were taken from the synchronized vertical receive arrays used in the frame of the North Pacific Laboratory (NPAL) during time intervals when no source was transmitting.

Overview of the results from the Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment in the East China Sea

Dahl, P.H., R. Zhang, J.H. Miller, L.R. Bartek, Z. Peng, S.R. Ramp, J.-X. Zhou, C.S. Chiu, J.F. Lynch, J.A. Simmen, and R.C. Spindel, "Overview of the results from the Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment in the East China Sea," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., 29, 920-928, doi:10.1109/JOE.2005.843159, 2004.

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1 Oct 2004

The Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment (ASIAEX) included two major field programs, one in the South China Sea and the other in the East China Sea (ECS). This paper presents an overview of research results from ASIAEX ECS conducted between May 28 and June 9, 2001. The primary emphasis of the field program was shallow-water acoustic propagation, focused on boundary interaction and geoacoustic inversion. The study area's central point was located at 29° 40.67'N, 126° 49.39'E, which is situated 500 km east of the Chinese coastline off Shanghai. The acoustic and supporting environmental measurements are summarized, along with research results to date, and references to papers addressing specific issues in more detail are given.

Acoustical Oceanography

Spindel, R.C., "Acoustical Oceanography," in ASA at 75, edited by H.E. Bass and W.J. Cavanaugh, 41-49 (Melville, NY, The Acoustical Society of America, 2004).

15 Jan 2004

Modeling the acoustic receptions at the NPAL array from the Kauai source

Vera, M.D., M.A. Dzieciuch, and the NPAL Group, "Modeling the acoustic receptions at the NPAL array from the Kauai source," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 113, 2279, 2003.

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1 Oct 2003

Acoustic transmissions from a 75-Hz source near Kauai to a vertical line array near California were recorded as part of the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) experiment. Extensive environmental measurements were also performed as part of the experiment and were intended to ensure correspondence between numerical simulations and the data. Despite the availability of this information, the process of identifying the recorded arrivals with predictions has not been a simple one. Since the source is near the seafloor at about 800 m depth, and the depth at the receiver is approximately 1800 m, acoustic interaction with the bathymetry has been explored as a possible complication. Ray simulations that allow for specular reflection from the bottom indicate that fully-refracted and bottom-interacting paths can reach the receiver range (about 3900 km) at similar travel times. The simultaneous presence of both kinds of acoustic energy could contribute to the identification difficulties. A series of parabolic equation simulations have been performed for different geoacoustic parameters in an attempt to correspond more closely to the data. The sensitivity of the predictions to the method used to extract and interpolate the sound speeds has also been investigated.

Studies of horizontal refraction and scattering of low-frequency signals using a modal approach in signal processing of NPAL data

Voronovich, A.G., V.E. Ostashev, and the NPAL Group, "Studies of horizontal refraction and scattering of low-frequency signals using a modal approach in signal processing of NPAL data," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 113, 2333, 2003.

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1 Oct 2003

In our previous paper [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2232], we obtained a time dependence of the horizontal refraction angle (HRA) of acoustic signals propagating over a range of about 4000 km in the ocean. This dependence was computed by processing of acoustic signals recorded during the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) experiment using a ray-type approach. In the present paper, we consider the results obtained in signal processing of the same data using a modal approach. In this approach, the acoustic field is represented as a sum of local acoustic modes with amplitudes depending on a frequency and arrival angle. We obtained a time dependence of HRA for a time interval of about a year. Time evolution of HRA exhibits long-period variations which could be associated with seasonal trends in the sound speed profiles. The results are consistent with those obtained by the ray approach. Different horizontal angles within arrivals were impossible to resolve due to sound scattering by internal waves. A theoretical estimate of the angular width of the acoustic signals in a horizontal plane was obtained. It appears to be consistent with the observed variance of HRA data.

Acoustic thermometry time series in the North Pacific

Cornuelle, B.D., B.D. Dushaw, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, P.F. Worcester, and the NPAL Group, "Acoustic thermometry time series in the North Pacific," Proceedings, XXIII General Assembly of IUGG, 30 June - 11 July, Sapporo, Japan, JSS03/03A/A13-002, A.167 (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 2003).

11 Jul 2003

Acoustic tomography for monitoring the Sea of Japan: a pilot experiment

Spindel, R.C., J. Na, P.H. Dahl, S. Oh, C. Eggen, Y.G. Kim, V.A. Akulichev, and Y.N. Morgunov, "Acoustic tomography for monitoring the Sea of Japan: a pilot experiment," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., 28, 297-302, 10.1109/JOE.2003.811896, 2003.

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9 Jul 2003

A pilot experiment was conducted in the Sea of Japan (also called the East Sea) in September-October 1999, to assess the possibility of using acoustic tomographic techniques for monitoring water mass structure and dynamics. Acoustic m-sequence signals at various frequencies between 250 and 634 Hz were transmitted from bottom-mounted acoustic sources in shallow water off the coast of Vladivostok to vertical-array receiving systems deployed off the north coast of Ulleung-Do island (S. Korea), 558 km to the south. The data are analyzed for temporal correlation, time spread, and transmission loss and are interpreted in terms of a tomographic system for monitoring the East Sea.

Acoustic thermometry time series in the North Pacific

Howe, B.M., B.D. Dushaw, J.A. Mercer, P.F. Worcester, and the NPAL Group, "Acoustic thermometry time series in the North Pacific," Proceedings, 3rd International Workshop on Scientific Use of Submarine Cables and Related Technologies, 25-27 June, Tokyo, 111-114 (IEEE, 2003).

27 Jun 2003

A comparative study of mode arrivals at megameter ranges for 28 Hz, 75 Hz, and 84 Hz sources

Wage, K.E., A.B. Baggeroer, T.G. Birdsall, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, K. Metzger, W.H. Munk, R.C. Spindel, and P.F. Worcester, "A comparative study of mode arrivals at megameter ranges for 28 Hz, 75 Hz, and 84 Hz sources," Proceedings, Oceans 2003 MTS/IEEE Conference, 258-265, doi:10.1109/OCEANS.2003.178566, (IEEE, 2003).

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1 Jun 2003

At long range, the low order acoustic modes constitute some of the most energetic arrivals. Prior to using these signals in tomographic or matched field inversions, it is important to understand their fluctuation statistics. Long vertical line arrays installed as a part of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) experiment provided a unique opportunity to measure low-order acoustic mode signals at megameter ranges from a broadband source. The ATOC VLA's at Hawaii and Kiritimati received M-sequences transmitted from two sources: a bottom-mounted source on Pioneer Seamount and a near-axial source deployed nearby as a part of the Alternate Source Test (AST). The Pioneer source had a center frequency of 75 Hz, and the AST source had center frequencies of 28 Hz and 84 Hz. Ranges from the sources to the arrays at Hawaii and Kiritimati are on the order of 3.5 and 5.1 megameters, respectively. This paper compares the mode 1 arrivals at the two ranges and three center frequencies. Differences between the arrivals for the bottom-mounted and mid-watercolumn sources are investigated using broadband PE simulations. Temporal coherence of the mode 1 signals is discussed.

Acoustic remote sensing of large-scale temperature variability in the North Pacific Ocean

Worcester, P.F., B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushaw, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, DMenemenlis, J.A. Mercer, W.H. Munk, R.C. Spindel, and D. Stammer, "Acoustic remote sensing of large-scale temperature variability in the North Pacific Ocean," Proceedings, Oceans 2003 MTS/IEEE Conference, 250, doi:10.1109/OCEANS.2003.178563, (IEEE, 2003).

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1 Jun 2003

Acoustic measurements of large-scale, depth-averaged temperatures are continuing in the North Pacific Ocean in a follow-on to the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) project. Long-range acoustic transmissions resumed in January 2002 from a low-frequency acoustic source located north of Kauai to U.S Navy receivers distributed throughout the North Pacific Ocean. The source previously transmitted for about two years (1997-1999) as part of the ATOC project. Both the source and receivers are connected to shore by cable, providing near-real time data. It is anticipated that transmissions will continue for five years, as part of the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) project. At these ranges acoustic methods give integral measurements of large-scale ocean temperature that provide the spatial low-pass filtering needed to observe small, gyre-scale signals in the presence of much larger, mesoscale noise. The paths to the east, particularly those paths to the California coast, show cooling relative to the earlier data. A path to the northwest showed modest warming until early 2003, when rapid cooling occurred. The acoustic rays sample depths below the mixed layer near Hawaii, but extend to the surface near the California coast and north of the Subarctic Front. The acoustic data will be compared to and ultimately combined with upper-ocean data from ARGO and sea-surface height data from satellite altimeters to detect changes in abyssal ocean temperature and to test the complementarity of the various data types. Acoustic travel-time data have been used previously in simple assimilation experiments and are now shown in comparison with assimilation products from state-of-the-art efforts from the ECCO (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean) Consortium.

Comparison of broadband mode arrivals at ranges of 3515 km and 5171 km in the North Pacific

Wage, K.E., and the ATOC Group (including B.D. Dushaw, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, and R.C. Spindel), "Comparison of broadband mode arrivals at ranges of 3515 km and 5171 km in the North Pacific," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 113, 2279, doi:10.1121/1.1530615, 2003.

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1 Apr 2003

The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) provided an opportunity to observe signals propagating in the low-order modes of the ocean waveguide. Understanding the fluctuations of these mode signals is an important prerequisite to using them for tomography or other applications. In previous work, we characterized the cross-mode coherence and temporal variability of the low-order mode arrivals at 3515 km range [Wage et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (in press)]. This study compares the mode arrivals for two different ranges: 3515 km and 5171 km, using data from the ATOC vertical line arrays at Hawaii and Kiritimati. We discuss the mode intensity and coherence statistics for each of the arrays and examine mean arrival time trends over the year-long deployment. Experimental results are compared to PE simulations of propagation through a realistic background environment perturbed by internal waves of varying strengths. The dependence of mode statistics on the path-dependent changes in the background sound speed and the parameters of the internal wave field is explored.

Proceedings, The Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment (ASIAEX) International Symposium, Chengdu, China, October 14-18, 2002

Tang, D., S.R. Ramp, P.H. Dahl, J. Lynch, J. Zhou, R. Zhang, C.-S. Chiu, R.C. Spindel, R.C., and J. Simmen, "Proceedings, The Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment (ASIAEX) International Symposium, Chengdu, China, October 14-18, 2002," APL-UW TR 0201, December 2002.

30 Dec 2002

Acoustic thermometry time series in the North Pacific

Dushaw, B.D., B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, P.F. Worcester, and the NPAL Group (J.A. Colosi, B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushaw, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, R.C. Spindel, and P.F. Worcester), "Acoustic thermometry time series in the North Pacific," WOCE and Beyond, San Antonio, TX, 18-22 November (2002).

22 Nov 2002

Acoustic thermometry time series in the North Pacific

Dushaw, B.D., B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, P.F. Worcester, and the NPAL Group (J.A. Colosi, B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushaw, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, R.C. Spindel, and P.F. Worcester), "Acoustic thermometry time series in the North Pacific," Eos Trans. AGU, 83, OS22A-O236, 2002.

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1 Oct 2002

Acoustic measurements of large-scale, depth-averaged temperatures are continuing in the North Pacific as a follow on to the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) project. An acoustic source is located just north of Kauai. It transmits to six receivers to the east at 1-4-Mm ranges and one receiver to the northwest at about 4-Mm range. The transmission schedule is six times per day at four-day intervals. The time series were obtained from 1998 through 1999 and, after a two-year interruption because of permitting issues, began again in January 2002 to continue for at least another five years. The intense mesoscale thermal variability around Hawaii is evident in all time series; this variability is much greater than that observed near the California coast. The paths to the east, particularly those paths to the California coast, show cooling this year relative to the earlier data. The path to the northwest shows a modest warming. The acoustic rays sample depths below the mixed layer near Hawaii and to the surface as they near the California coast or extend north of the sub-arctic front. The temperatures measured acoustically are compared with those inferred from TOPEX altimetry, ARGO float data, and with ECCO (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean) model output. This on-going data collection effort, to be augmented over the next years with a more complete observing array, can be used for, e.g., separating whole-basin climate change from low-mode spatial variability such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

Modeling the waveguide invariant as a distribution

Rouseff, D., and R.C. Spindel, "Modeling the waveguide invariant as a distribution," Proceedings, Ocean Acoustic Interference Phenomena and Signal Processing, May 1-3, 2001, San Francisco, CA, edited by W.A. Kuperman and G.L. D'Spain, 137-150, doi:10.1063/1.1486279, (American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY, 2002).

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24 Jun 2002

The "invariant parameter" called "beta" is often useful for describing the acoustic interference pattern in a waveguide. For some shallow water waveguides, the measured acoustic intensity might contain contributions from several propagating acoustic modes. For each pair of these modes, a different value for the waveguide invariant might apply. If the acoustic intensity is measured over some distributed aperture and finite bandwidth, it may become difficult to assign a single value to beta. In the present work, the waveguide invariant is treated as a distribution. An algorithm for estimating this distribution for a general measurement geometry is developed. The algorithm is exercised for different classes of shallow water waveguides. When the propagation is dominated by modes interacting with the sea surface, the distribution can be sharply peaked. For cases where the sound speed profile creates a duct, the distribution is more diffuse. The effects of source/receiver depth, range, bandwidth and bottom attenuation are quantified.

Acoustic remote sensing of large-scale temperature variability in the North Pacific Ocean

Cornuelle, B.D., B.D. Dushaw, D. Stammer, D. Menemenlis, and the NPAL Group (J.A. Colosi, B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushaw, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, R.C. Spindel, and P.F. Worcester), "Acoustic remote sensing of large-scale temperature variability in the North Pacific Ocean," Symposium on the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment, Biarritz, France, 13-15 June, (2002).

15 Jun 2002

Monitoring the ocean acoustically: A review and strategy for the future

Howe, B.M., A.M.G. Forbes, P.F. Worcester, W.H. Munk, R.C. Spindel, B.D. Dushaw, and J.A. Mercer, "Monitoring the ocean acoustically: A review and strategy for the future," Eos Trans. AGU, 83, OS25, 2002.

1 Jun 2002

A comparison of ocean ambient sound levels after 30 years for a coastal site off California

Andrew, R.K., B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, and the NPAL Group (J.A. Colosi, B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushaw, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, R.C. Spindel, and P.F. Worcester), "A comparison of ocean ambient sound levels after 30 years for a coastal site off California," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109, 2386, 2001.

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1 May 2001

As part of the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory project, ambient sound data from 1994 to the present has been collected. Long-term averages of these data from a receiver on the continental slope west of Point Sur, CA, are compared to earlier measurements made at the same site over 1963–1965 by Wenz [Wenz, J. Underwater Acoust. 19 (1969)]. The levels Wenz reported fall below our 10% quantile from 5 Hz to 50 Hz, rise to the 50% quantile (i.e., the median) at 100 Hz, and again fall below the 10% quantile by 250 Hz. Wenz removed highly variable "transient" data before calculating his averages. We mimicked his processing with the NPAL data and obtained a result which is virtually indistinguishable from the median, which is approximately 1 dB below the (dB) mean of each one-third octave band. Hence, our median levels are directly comparable to Wenz's results, and this comparison shows that the 1994–2000 levels exceed the 1963–1965 levels by 9 dB or less below 100 Hz and again at 250 Hz, but are roughly similar at 100 Hz.

Analysis of mode coherence and intensity at megameter ranges

Wage, K.E., and the NPAL Group, including B.D. Dushaw, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, and R.C. Spindel, "Analysis of mode coherence and intensity at megameter ranges," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109, 2385, 2001.

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1 May 2001

The low-order modes constitute some of the most energetic arrivals at long ranges. Understanding fluctuations of these mode arrivals is crucial to their use as observables in matched field processing and tomography. Both simulated and experimental data indicate that at megameter ranges, the low modes have complex arrival patterns due to internal-wave-induced coupling. Analysis of broadband receptions at 3515 km from the ATOC experiment has shown that mode coherence times are on the order of 6 minutes and that centroid statistics provide useful measures of arrival time trends over the course of several months [Wage et al., IEEE Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop Proceedings, pp. 102-106, 2000]. The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) experiment presents an opportunity for further research on broadband mode arrivals at megameter ranges. This study examines temporal coherence, intensity variations, and other mode statistics using data from the 40-element NPAL vertical line array. Experimental results are compared with PE simulations of propagation through internal waves of varying strengths, and the impact of the up-slope propagation near the receivers on the mode statistics is discussed.

Extracting acoustic observables from the NPAL billboard array data

Dzieciuch, M.A., and the NPAL Group (J.A. Colosi, B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushaw, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, R.C. Spindel, and P.F. Worcester), "Extracting acoustic observables from the NPAL billboard array data," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109, 2385, 2001.

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1 May 2001

Low-frequency (75-Hz) acoustic signals were repeatedly transmitted over a 1 year period and sampled vertically (with up to a 1400-m aperture) and horizontally (with a 3600-m cross-range aperture) by a distant billboard array (3900-km range) as described by the NPAL Group. The data are complicated by the fact that the sound interacts with the bottom near both the source and receiver. Vertical beamforming is used to filter the bottom interacting energy, and thus allow analysis of the fundamental acoustic properties. Subband and subarray processing is used to produce estimates of arrival times and angles or resolved ray arrivals. Time-series of acoustic travel times and arrival angles are then developed.

Horizontal refraction of acoustic signals retrieved from NPAL billboard array data

Voronovich, A.G., and the NPAL Group, including B.D. Dushaw, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, and R.C. Spindel, "Horizontal refraction of acoustic signals retrieved from NPAL billboard array data," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109, 2385, 2001.

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1 May 2001

A comprehensive, long-range sound propagation experiment was carried out with the use of the billboard acoustic array of the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) in 1999. The antenna consisting of five vertical line arrays was deployed near a California coast and received broadband acoustic signals transmitted from Hawaii over a distance of about 4000 km. Acoustic signals propagating over such a long distance might exhibit noticeable horizontal refraction. The paper will present results of processing the NPAL data to infer horizontal refraction angle (HRA) as a function of time. Different methods were used for determining HRA. The first approach employed cross correlation of the acoustic signals at different VLAs. Time delay corresponding to maximum of cross correlation is related to HRA assuming the angle is approximately the same for all rays (or modes). The second method used modal representation of the arriving broadband signals. The dependency of the amplitudes of acoustic modes on mode number, frequency, and arrival angle was determined independently within narrow frequency bins, and then the results were averaged over whole frequency range. This method allowed, in particular, to evaluate angular width of the arrived signal, which appeared to be of the order of a few milliradians.

Noise field statistics and coherence on the NPAL array

Baggeroer, A.B., and the NPAL Group (J.A. Colosi, B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushaw, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, R.C. Spindel, and P.F. Worcester), "Noise field statistics and coherence on the NPAL array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109, 2386, 2001.

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1 May 2001

While the NPAL array was primarily deployed to examine the spatial coherence of the Hawaii source, it is also a rich data set for ambient noise studies. Shipping noise, earthquakes and biologics all have been identified in the NPAL data. Moreover, ambient noise coherence is the primary issue in maximizing the SNR output of a sonar system. The first and second order statistics of data from the NPAL "noise only" segments have been analyzed with the following results: (i) There is a wide spread in the peak levels, most likely due to the proximity to shipping lanes. The maximum peak level in the recording band is 117 dB. (ii) Full broadband coherences tend to be low because of the presence of many ships. (iii) If one examines frequency bands of 1–2 Hz, then lines of individual ships can be identified and associated and they are very coherent across NPAL aperture. (iv) Vertical beamforming indicates relatively highly directional spectra at low grazing angles and "noise notch" for the spectra at higher frequencies. Horizontal beamforming has been difficult to implement due to element positioning errors and the large array transit time.

Observing horizontal wave fronts from the NPAL billboard array data

Dzieciuch, M.A., and the NPAL Group (J.A. Colosi, B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushaw, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, R.C. Spindel, and P.F. Worcester), "Observing horizontal wave fronts from the NPAL billboard array data," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109, 2385, 2001.

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1 May 2001

One of the main objectives of the NPAL experiment is to investigate the horizontal refraction and coherence of the acoustic wave fronts at long range. Given time series of acoustic arrival times and angles of resolved ray arrival arrivals, a detailed look at the acoustic wave fronts is possible. First and second order statistics (density functions and coherences) of the wave fronts are investigated. The wave fronts are shown to vary with time, frequency, depth and across the horizontal aperture.

On 'ray-like' arrivals in the deep-ocean shadow zone of megameter range acoustic transmissions

Dushaw, B.D., and the NPAL Group (J.A. Colosi, B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushaw, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, R.C. Spindel, and P.F. Worcester), "On 'ray-like' arrivals in the deep-ocean shadow zone of megameter range acoustic transmissions," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109, 2385, 2001.

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1 May 2001

Receptions of long-range acoustic transmissions by deep hydrophone arrays in the Pacific and Atlantic often have "ray-like" arrivals that occur in the shadow zone of the predicted time front. These "ray-like" arrivals can frequently be identified with the cusps of the predicted time front, but the receivers are up to 750 m below the depth of the cusps. Preliminary calculations show that the observed acoustic energy is not accounted for by errors in the sound speed, leakage of acoustic energy below the cusps as predicted by the full wave equation, or scattering due to internal waves. Data obtained during experiments in the Atlantic and Pacific will be reviewed. Experiments that have been conducted with receivers of vertical line arrays have not had receivers deep enough to observe this phenomena. The effect is seen when bottom-mounted or midwater acoustic sources are used. These data present a number of problems: If the ray paths are wandering all over the water column, why are predictions of ray travel times usually accurate? How does the energy loss associated with these data increase the attenuation of very long-range acoustic transmissions? Without knowing the forward problem, how can these data be used to determine oceanographic information?

The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) experiment

Colosi, J.A., B.D. Cornuelle, B.D. Dushaw, M.A. Dzieciuch, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, R.C. Spindel, and P.F. Worcester, "The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) experiment," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109, 2384, 2001.

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1 May 2001

The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory program augmented the existing ATOC acoustic network with a sparse, two-dimensional receiving array installed west of Sur Ridge, California, from July 1998 through June 1999, to receive transmissions from the 75-Hz ATOC source north of Kauai. The NPAL array consisted of four 20-element vertical arrays, each with a 700-m aperture, and one 40-element vertical array with a 1400-m aperture. The arrays were deployed transverse to the 3900-km acoustic path from the Kauai source and had a total horizontal aperture of 3600 m. Data collected with the billboard array and the U.S. Navy SOSUS receivers are being used (i) to study the temporal, vertical, and horizontal coherence of long-range, low-frequency resolved rays and modes, (ii) to study 3-D propagation effects, (iii) to examine directional ambient noise properties, and (iv) to improve basin-scale ocean nowcasts via assimilation of acoustic data and other data types into models. In addition to acoustic data, environmental data along the path from the Kauai source to the billboard array were acquired by two oceanographic sub-surface moorings and by two XBT/CTD/ADCP transects along the path. The experiment will be described and some preliminary results presented.

The terminal problem: Model–data comparisons of basin scale transmissions including effects of shallow bathymetry near source and receiver

Heaney, K.D., and the NPAL Group, including B.D. Dushaw, B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, and R.C. Spindel, "The terminal problem: Model–data comparisons of basin scale transmissions including effects of shallow bathymetry near source and receiver," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109, 2385, 2001.

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1 May 2001

Acoustic transmissions on basin scale ranges are being used to determine depth-dependent temperature variability. With travel time being the primary observable, stationary sources and nearly stationary receivers are experimental requirements. This has led to the use of bottom-mounted sources and receivers to reduce travel time variability. The NPAL (North Pacific Acoustics Laboratory) experiment has transmitted broadband acoustic pulses from two bottom-mounted sources near the sound channel axis. Recordings have been taken on the NPAL billboard array, a linear series of five vertical line arrays moored in 1800 m of water near Monterey, CA. Additional recordings have been taken from the SOSUS system throughout the Pacific basin. The effects of the near source and near receiver scattering are examined. In particular, near source scattering leads to excess high-angle energy entering deep water with a travel time delay of nearly 1 s due to the low group speeds of high-angle rays/modes in shallow water. We also compare the energetics of the arriving rays that have bounced once on the rising seafloor near the NPAL receivers. Comparisons of models and data for bottom interacting acoustics lead us to the perennial issue of geoacoustic parameters.

Long-term observations in acoustics-the Ocean Acoustic Observatory Federation

Orcutt, J., C. de Groot-Hedlin, W. Hodgkiss, W. Kupwerman, W. Munk, F. Vernon, P. Worcester, E. Bernard, R. Dziak, C. Fox, C.-S. Chiu, C. Collins, J.A. Mercer, R.I. Odom, M. Park, D.J. Soukup, and R.C. Spindel, "Long-term observations in acoustics-the Ocean Acoustic Observatory Federation," Oceanography, 13, 57-63, 2000.

1 Jun 2000

A comparison of acoustic thermometry, XBT, TOPEX, and HOT observations of ocean temperature in the northeast Pacific

Dushaw, B.D., and the ATOC Group, "A comparison of acoustic thermometry, XBT, TOPEX, and HOT observations of ocean temperature in the northeast Pacific," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 107, 2836, doi:10.1121/1.429316, 2000.

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1 May 2000

Time series of temperature have been measured acoustically in the northeast Pacific as part of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) project. These time series are compared with other available data types. The acoustic time series of transmissions from the California and Kauai acoustic sources were obtained during 1996–1999. As a result of marine mammal protocols, the time series are intermittent; the California source was turned off in Fall 1998. Assuming that variations in sea-surface height observed by TOPEX/POSEIDON are caused by thermal expansion, the amplitude of the annual cycle of heat content derived from altimetry is larger than that found by the acoustic data, Levitus climatology, and monthly maps of ocean temperature from XBTs of opportunity. The heat content "anomalies" determined by the XBT maps are comparable in size to the differences between the XBT and acoustically derived heat content. A variety of problems with the XBT sampling may account for these differences. The 12-year time series of temperature derived from the Hawaiian Ocean Time series (HOT) data highlights the mesoscale noise in single-point sampling. However, thermal variability at 100-day time scales is observed in the acoustic data obtained between Hawaii and California using the Kauai source. Acoustic thermometry is complementary to altimetry and hydrography.

The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL)

Dushaw, B.D., B.M. Howe, J.A. Mercer, R.C. Spindel, J.A. Colosi, B.D. Cornuelle, M.A. Dzieciuch, and P.F. Worcester, "The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL)," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 107, 2829, doi:10.1121/1.429133, 2000.

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1 May 2000

The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory program augmented the existing ATOC acoustic network with a sparse, two-dimensional receiving array installed west of Sur Ridge, CA, close to an existing U.S. Navy SOSUS array, during July 1998 to receive transmissions from the 75-Hz ATOC source north of Kauai. The NPAL array consisted of four 20-element vertical arrays, each with a 700-m aperture, and one 40-element vertical array with a 1400-m aperture. The arrays were deployed transverse to the 3900-km path from the Kauai source and had a total horizontal aperture of 3600 m. Data collected with the two-dimensional array and the U.S. Navy SOSUS receivers will be used to (i) study the temporal, vertical, and horizontal coherence of long-range, low-frequency resolved rays and modes, (ii) study 3D propagation effects, (iii) examine directional ambient noise properties, and (iv) to improve basin-scale ocean nowcasts via assimilation of acoustic data and other data types into models. Environmental data along the path from the Kauai source to the two-dimensional array were acquired by two oceanographic subsurface moorings and by two XBT/CTD/ADCP transects along the path, one at the beginning and one at the end of the experiment. We describe the experiment and offer some preliminary data.

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center
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