APL Home
APL-UW Home

Jobs
About
Campus Map
Contact
Intranet

Benjamin Smith

Principal Physicist

Affiliate Associate Professor, Earth and Space Sciences

Email

bsmith@apl.washington.edu

Phone

206-616-9176

Department Affiliation

Polar Science Center

Publications

2000-present and while at APL-UW

Marine ice sheet collapse potentially underway for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica

Joughin, I., B.E. Smith, and B. Medley, "Marine ice sheet collapse potentially underway for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica," Science, 344, 735-738, doi: 10.1126/science.1249055, 2014

More Info

16 May 2014

Resting atop a deep marine basin, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has long been considered prone to instability. Using a numerical model, we investigate the sensitivity of Thwaites Glacier to ocean melt and whether unstable retreat is already underway. Our model reproduces observed losses when forced with ocean melt comparable to estimates. Simulated losses are moderate (<0.25 mm per year sea level) over the 21st Century, but generally increase thereafter. Except possibly for the lowest-melt scenario, the simulations indicate early-stage collapse has begun. Less certain is the timescale, with onset of rapid (> 1 mm per year of sea-level rise) collapse for the different simulations within the range of two to nine centuries.

Further speedup of Jakobshavn Isbrae

Joughin, I., B.E. Smith, D.E. Shean, and D. Floricioiu, "Further speedup of Jakobshavn Isbrae," The Cryosphere, 8, 209-214, doi:doi:10.5194/tc-8-209-2014, 2014.

More Info

3 Feb 2014

We have extended the record of flow speed on Jakobshavn Isbrae through the summer of 2013. These new data reveal large seasonal speedups, 30 to 50% greater than previous summers. At a point a few kilometres inland from the terminus, the mean annual speed for 2012 is nearly three times as great as that in the mid-1990s, while the peak summer speeds are more than a factor of four greater. These speeds were achieved as the glacier terminus appears to have retreated to the bottom of an over-deepened basin with a depth of ~ 1300 m below sea level. The terminus is likely to reach the deepest section of the trough within a few decades, after which it could rapidly retreat to the shallower regions ~ 50 km farther upstream, potentially by the end of this century.

Ice-sheet mass balance and climate change

Hanna, E., and 11 others, including B. Smith, "Ice-sheet mass balance and climate change," Nature, 498, 51-59, doi:10.1038/nature12238, 2013.

More Info

6 Jun 2013

Since the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, new observations of ice-sheet mass balance and improved computer simulations of ice-sheet response to continuing climate change have been published. Whereas Greenland is losing ice mass at an increasing pace, current Antarctic ice loss is likely to be less than some recently published estimates. It remains unclear whether East Antarctica has been gaining or losing ice mass over the past 20 years, and uncertainties in ice-mass change for West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula remain large. We discuss the past six years of progress and examine the key problems that remain.

More Publications

A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance

Shepherd, A., and 46 others, including I. Joughin and B. Smith, "A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance," Science, 338, 1183-1189, doi:10.1126/science.1228102, 2012.

More Info

30 Nov 2012

We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods—especially in Greenland and West Antarctica—and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by –142 ± 49, +14 ± 43, –65 ± 26, and –20 ± 14 gigatonnes year-1, respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 ± 0.20 millimeter year-1 to the rate of global sea-level rise.

Glaciology: Repeat warming in Greenland

Smith, B.E., "Glaciology: Repeat warming in Greenland," Nature Geosci., 5, 369-370, doi:10.1038/ngeo1488, 2012.

27 May 2012

Seasonal to decadal scale variations in the surface velocity of Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland: Observation and model-based analysis

Joughin, I., B.E. Smith, I.M. Howat, D. Floriciolu, R.B. Alley, M. Truffer, and M. Fahnestock, "Seasonal to decadal scale variations in the surface velocity of Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland: Observation and model-based analysis," J. Geophys. Res., 117, doi:10.1029/2011JF002110, 2012.

More Info

25 May 2012

Using new data, we build upon the nearly two-decade long record of observations from Jakobshavn Isbrae to investigate the processes driving its dynamic evolution. While winter flow speed has not increased substantially over the last three winters, there remains a strong seasonal variation in flow speed that coincides with a cycle of summer thinning and winter thickening. We relate changes in glacier speed to geometry through variations in basal traction and horizontal stresses, using ice-flow models constrained by satellite and airborne observations. These results suggest that the bed provides little flow resistance along the main trough within about 20 km of the terminus. While the loss of buttressing from the retreat of grounded and floating ice likely contributed to the initial speedup, other processes are of comparable significance at seasonal to decadal time scales. From analysis of the models, we hypothesize that thinning-induced change in basal effective pressure is the dominant process influencing near-terminus behavior, while diffusive processes drive the upstream response. The apparent need for the terminus to thin to near flotation before it can calve may limit the rate at which retreat occurs. Our analysis of the processes controlling the speed suggests little potential for further large acceleration. Thinning and elevated speeds may continue at rates similar to present, however, putting the glacier on course to retreat to the head of its deep trough in about a century, at which point it likely would stabilize with a thinner terminus.

21st-century evolution of Greenland outlet glacier velocities

Moon, T., I. Joughin, B. Smith, and I. Howat, "21st-century evolution of Greenland outlet glacier velocities," Science, 336, 576-578, doi:10.1126/science.1219985, 2012.

More Info

4 May 2012

Earlier observations on several of Greenland%u2019s outlet glaciers, starting near the turn of the 21st century, indicated rapid (annual-scale) and large (>100%) increases in glacier velocity. Combining data from several satellites, we produce a decade-long (2000 to 2010) record documenting the ongoing velocity evolution of nearly all (200 ) of Greenland%u2019s major outlet glaciers, revealing complex spatial and temporal patterns. Changes on fast-flow marine-terminating glaciers contrast with steady velocities on ice-shelf%u2013terminating glaciers and slow speeds on land-terminating glaciers. Regionally, glaciers in the northwest accelerated steadily, with more variability in the southeast and relatively steady flow elsewhere. Intraregional variability shows a complex response to regional and local forcing. Observed acceleration indicates that sea level rise from Greenland may fall well below proposed upper bounds.

Changes in the dynamics of marine terminating outlet glaciers in west Greenland (2000-2009)

McFadden, E.M., I.M. Howat, I. Joughin, B.E. Smith, and Y. Ahn, "Changes in the dynamics of marine terminating outlet glaciers in west Greenland (2000-2009)," J. Geophys. Res., 116, doi:10.1029/2010F001757, 2011.

More Info

23 Jun 2011

Recent changes in the dynamics of Greenland's marine terminating outlet glaciers indicate a rapid and complex response to external forcing. Despite observed ice front retreat and recent geophysical evidence for accelerated mass loss along Greenland's northwestern margin, it is unclear whether west Greenland glaciers have undergone the synchronous speed-up and subsequent slow-down as observed in southeastern glaciers earlier in the decade. To investigate changes in west Greenland outlet glacier dynamics and the potential controls behind their behavior, we derive time series of front position, surface elevation, and surface slope for 59 marine terminating outlet glaciers and surface speeds for select glaciers in west Greenland from 2000 to 2009. Using these data, we look for relationships between retreat, thinning, acceleration, and geometric parameters to determine the first-order controls on glacier behavior. Our data indicate that changes in front positions and surface elevations were asynchronous on annual time scales, though nearly all glaciers retreated and thinned over the decade. We found no direct relationship between retreat, acceleration, and external forcing applicable to the entire region. In regard to geometry, we found that, following retreat, (1) glaciers with grounded termini experienced more pronounced changes in dynamics than those with floating termini and (2) thinning rates declined more quickly for glaciers with steeper slopes. Overall, glacier geometry should influence outlet glacier dynamics via stress redistribution following perturbations at the front, but our data indicate that the relative importance of geometry as a control of glacier behavior is highly variable throughout west Greenland.

Committed sea-level rise for the next century from Greenland ice sheet dynamics during the past decade.

Price, S.F., A.J. Payne, I.M. Howat, and B.E. Smith, "Committed sea-level rise for the next century from Greenland ice sheet dynamics during the past decade." P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 108, 8978-8983, doi:10.1073/pnas.1017313108, 2011.

More Info

31 May 2011

We use a three-dimensional, higher-order ice flow model and a realistic initial condition to simulate dynamic perturbations to the Greenland ice sheet during the last decade and to assess their contribution to sea level by 2100. Starting from our initial condition, we apply a time series of observationally constrained dynamic perturbations at the marine termini of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers, Jakobshavn Isbrae, Helheim Glacier, and Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier. The initial and long-term diffusive thinning within each glacier catchment is then integrated spatially and temporally to calculate a minimum sea-level contribution of approximately 1 plus/minus 0.4 mm from these three glaciers by 2100. Based on scaling arguments, we extend our modeling to all of Greenland and estimate a minimum dynamic sea-level contribution of approximately 6 plus/minus 2 mm by 2100. This estimate of committed sea-level rise is a minimum because it ignores mass loss due to future changes in ice sheet dynamics or surface mass balance. Importantly, > 75% of this value is from the long-term, diffusive response of the ice sheet, suggesting that the majority of sea-level rise from Greenland dynamics during the past decade is yet to come. Assuming similar and recurring forcing in future decades and a self-similar ice dynamical response, we estimate an upper bound of 45 mm of sea-level rise from Greenland dynamics by 2100. These estimates are constrained by recent observations of dynamic mass loss in Greenland and by realistic model behavior that accounts for both the long-term cumulative mass loss and its decay following episodic boundary forcing.

Light propagation in firn: Application to borehole video

Fudge, T.J., and B.E. Smith, "Light propagation in firn: Application to borehole video," J. Glaciol., 56, 614-624, doi:10.3189/002214310793146205, 2010.

More Info

1 Oct 2010

Borehole optical stratigraphy (BOS) is a borehole video system and processing routine for investigating polar firn. BOS records brightness variations in the firn and is effective at identifying stratigraphic markers. BOS brightness logs have been used to count annual layers and measure vertical strain, even though a specific cause of the brightness variations has not been determined. Here we combine two models of light transport to examine potential errors with BOS and identify improvements which will allow the system to estimate optical grain size. We use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model to estimate the influence of firn microstructure variations on borehole reflectance. We then use a ray-tracing algorithm to model the multiple reflections within the borehole that cause measured brightness variations.

Multiple reflections cause the brightness measured at a point on the borehole wall to not necessarily be equal to the local wall reflectance. The ray tracing further shows that wall imperfections or variations in the camera position can produce brightness variations that are unrelated to changes in firn properties. Smooth walls and good stabilization of the camera help ensure that brightness variations result from variations in firn properties, and thus are a measure of firn stratigraphy, rather than artifacts.

Greenland flow variability from ice-sheet-wide velocity mapping

Joughin, I., B.E. Smith, I.M. Howat, T. Scambos, and T. Moon, "Greenland flow variability from ice-sheet-wide velocity mapping," J. Glaciol., 56, 415-430, doi:10.3189/002214310792447734, 2010.

More Info

1 Aug 2010

Using RADARSAT synthetic aperture radar data, we have mapped the flow velocity over much of the Greenland ice sheet for the winters of 2000/01 and 2005/06. These maps provide a detailed view of the ice-sheet flow, including that of the hundreds of glaciers draining the interior. The focused patterns of flow at the coast suggest a strong influence of bedrock topography. Differences between our two maps confirm numerous early observations of accelerated outlet glacier flow as well as revealing previously unrecognized changes. The overall pattern is one of speed-up accompanied by terminus retreat, but there are also several instances of surge behavior and a few cases of glacier slowdown. Comprehensive mappings such as these, at regular intervals, provide an important new observational capability for understanding ice-sheet variability.

An inventory of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica detected by ICESat (2003-2008)

Smith, B.E., H.A. Fricker, I.R. Joughin, and S. Tulaczyk, "An inventory of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica detected by ICESat (2003-2008)," J. Glaciol., 55, 573-595, doi:10.3189/002214309789470879, 2009.

More Info

1 Sep 2009

Through the detection of surface deformation in response to water movement, recent satellite studies have demonstrated the existence of subglacial lakes in Antarctica that fill and drain on timescales of months to years. These studies, however, were confined to specific regions of the ice sheet. Here we present the first comprehensive study of these 'active' lakes for the Antarctic ice sheet north of 86°S, based on 4.5 years (2003-08) of NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Our analysis has detected 124 lakes that were active during this period, and we estimate volume changes for each lake. The ICESat-detected lakes are prevalent in coastal Antarctica, and are present under most of the largest ice-stream catchments. Lakes sometimes appear to transfer water from one to another, but also often exchange water with distributed sources undetectable by ICESat, suggesting that the lakes may provide water to or withdraw water from the hydrologic systems that lubricate glacier flow. Thus, these reservoirs may contribute pulses of water to produce rapid temporal changes in glacier speeds, but also may withdraw water at other times to slow flow.

Continued evolution of Jakobshavn Isbrae following its rapid speedup

Joughin, I., I. Howat, M. Fahnestock, B. Smith, W. Krabill, R. Alley, H. Stern, and M. Truffer, "Continued evolution of Jakobshavn Isbrae following its rapid speedup," J. Geophys. Res., 113, doi:10.1029/2008JF001023, 2008.

More Info

28 Oct 2008

Several new data sets reveal that thinning and speedup of Jakobshavn Isbrae continue, following its recent rapid increase in speed as its floating ice tongue disintegrated. The present speedup rate of –5% a-1 over much of the fast-moving region appears to be a diffusive response to the initial much larger speedup near the front. There is strong seasonality in speed over much of the fast-flowing main trunk that shows a good inverse correlation with the seasonally varying length of a short (typically ~6 km) floating ice tongue. This modulation of speed with ice front position supports the hypothesis that the major speedup was caused by loss of the larger floating ice tongue from 1998 to 2003. Analysis of image time series suggests that the transient winter ice tongue is formed when sea ice bonds glacier ice in the fjord to produce a nearly rigid mass that almost entirely suppresses calving. Major calving only resumes in late winter when much of this ice clears from the fjord. The collapse of the ice tongue in the late 1990s followed almost immediately after a sharp decline in winter sea-ice concentration in Disko Bay. This decline may have extended the length of the calving season for several consecutive years, leading to the ice tongue's collapse.

Seasonal speedup along the western flank of the Greenland ice sheet

Joughin, I., S.B. Das, M.A. King, B.E. Smith, I.M. Howat, and T. Moon, "Seasonal speedup along the western flank of the Greenland ice sheet," Science, 320, 791-883, 2008.

More Info

9 May 2008

It has been widely hypothesized that a warmer climate in Greenland would increase the volume of lubricating surface meltwater reaching the ice-bedrock interface, accelerating ice flow and increasing mass loss. We have assembled a data set that provides a synoptic-scale view, spanning ice-sheet to outlet-glacier flow, with which to evaluate this hypothesis. On the ice sheet, these data reveal summer speedups (50 to 100%) consistent with, but somewhat larger than, earlier observations. The relative speedup of outlet glaciers, however, is far smaller (<15%). Furthermore, the dominant seasonal influence on Jakobshavn Isbrae's flow is the calving front's annual advance and retreat. With other effects producing outlet-glacier speedups an order of magnitude larger, seasonal melt's influence on ice flow is likely confined to those regions dominated by ice-sheet flow.

In The News

Collapse or catastrophe?

The Economist

The West Antarctic ice sheet looks doomed — eventually. Glaciologists use the word "collapse" to describe a shift towards an irretrievable loss of an ice sheet. There is, reckons Dr Joughin, probably nothing that can now be done to save the Thwaites glacier.

17 May 2014

Antarctic ice sheet slipping into the sea

National Public Radio: Science Friday, Ira Flatow

Two studies out this week confirm that the glaciers of West Antarctica have begun to slip into the Amundsen Sea. Scientists estimate it could take 200 years for the ice sheet to completely melt. Glaciologist Ian Joughin tells us what this could mean for rising sea levels.

16 May 2014

Antarctic glaciers melting 'passed point of no return'

USA Today, Traci Watson

The vast glaciers of western Antarctica are rapidly melting and losing ice to the sea and almost certainly have 'passed the point of no return,' according to new work by two separate teams of scientists.

13 May 2014

More News Items

New study: Glacial collapse in Antarctica 'unstoppable'

KUOW Radio, Steve Scher, Ashley Ahearn, and Posey Gruener

New research from the University of Washington and other institutions provides detailed predictions for the collapse of an ice shelf in West Antarctica. When the Thwaites Glacier melts, it could trigger even more extreme sea level rise than scientists previously thought.

13 May 2014

UW researchers: Polar ice sheet doomed, but how soon?

The Seattle Times, Craig Welch

It%u2019s too late to halt the collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet into the sea, triggering several feet of sea-level rise, scientists have found. But UW researchers say the speed of that collapse depends on our response to climate change.

13 May 2014

Antarctic glacier loss is 'unstoppable,' study says

Time, Bryan Walsh

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change had projected that sea level will rise by about 35.5 in (98 cm) at most by 2100, but that prediction will likely need to be revisited in the wake of these new studies.

12 May 2014

Irreversible collapse of Antarctic glaciers has begun, studies say

Los Angeles Times, Scott Gold

A slow-motion and irreversible collapse of a massive cluster of glaciers in Antarctica has begun, and could cause sea levels to rise across the planet by another 4 feet within 200 years, scientists concluded in two studies released Monday.

12 May 2014

Melting of Antarctic ice sheet might be unstoppable

National Public Radio, Scott Neuman

Scientists have long worried about climate change-induced melting of the huge West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Now they say that not only is the disintegration of the ice already underway, but that it's likely unstoppable.

12 May 2014

NASA spots worrisome Antarctic ice sheet melt

The Washington Post

The huge West Antarctic ice sheet is starting a glacially slow collapse in an unstoppable way, two new studies show. Alarmed scientists say that means even more sea level rise than they figured.

12 May 2014

Scientists warm of melting ice sheet, rising sea level

The Wall Street Journal, Robert Lee Hotz

Six rapidly melting glaciers in Antarctica are destabilizing one of the world's largest ice sheets, a process which, if unchecked, could release enough water to raise sea levels world-wide significantly in centuries to come.

12 May 2014

Scientists warn of rising oceans from polar melt

The New York Times, Justin Gillis and Kenneth Chang

A large section of the mighty West Antarctica ice sheet has begun falling apart and its continued melting now appears to be unstoppable, two groups of scientists reported.

12 May 2014

Studies: Seas to rise up to 10 feet from 'unstoppable' glacier melt

U.S. News and World Report, Alan Neuhauser

A huge swath of the West Antarctic ice sheet has "passed the point of no return," a pair of new science reports say, melting far faster than expected in an "irreversible decline" that will raise the world%u2019s oceans by anywhere from 4 to 10 feet.

12 May 2014

West Antarctic glacier loss: 'We have passed the point of no return'

Christian Science Monitor, Pete Spotts

Two studies released Monday signal that five glaciers in West Antarctica are undergoing irreversible decline over the next several hundred years, signaling sea level-rise of nearly four feet.

12 May 2014

West Antarctic ice sheet collapse is under way

UW News and Information, Hannah Hickey

University of Washington researchers used detailed topography maps and computer modeling to show that the collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet appears to have already begun. The fast-moving Thwaites Glacier will likely disappear in a matter of centuries, researchers say, raising sea level by nearly 2 feet.

12 May 2014

West Antarctic ice sheet's collapse triggers sea level warning

NBC News, Alan Boyle

Two teams of scientists say the long-feared collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has begun, kicking off what they say will be a centuries-long, "unstoppable" process that could raise sea levels by as much as 15 feet.

12 May 2014

Western Antarctic ice sheet collapse has already begun, scientists warn

The Guardian, Suzanne Goldenberg

Two separate studies confirm loss of ice sheet is inevitable, and will cause up to 4m of additional sea-level rise. This collapse will change the coastline of the whole world.

12 May 2014

Glacier that sank the Titanic is really on the move, say scientists

The Christian Science Monitor, Sudeshna Chowdhury

Jakobshavn Glacier has bagged the tile of Greenland's Fastest Glacier in Greenland: In the summer of 2012 it reached a record speed of over 150 feet per day.

4 Feb 2014

Greenland glacier hits speed record

BBC News, Paul Rincon

A river of ice in Greenland has become the fastest-flowing glacier currently known in the world, a study suggests. Ian Joughin and Ben Smith of the University of Washington's Polar Science Center in Seattle analysed pictures from the German TerraSAR-X satellites to measure the speed of the glacier.

4 Feb 2014

Greenland's fastest glacier sets new speed record

UW News and Information, Hannah Hickey

The latest observations of Jakobshavn Glacier show that Greenland's largest glacier is moving ice from land into the ocean at a speed that appears to be the fastest ever recorded.

3 Feb 2014

UW researchers mapping changes in glacier ice

KING5 News, Seattle, Adam Mertz

University of Washington researchers are working with NASA to create digital maps of glaciers in Greenland.

25 Nov 2013

Post-shutdown, UW Arctic research flights resume

UW News and Information, Hannah Hickey

After a couple of stressful weeks during the federal government shutdown, University of Washington researchers are back at work monitoring conditions near the North Pole. November has been busy for UW scientists studying winter storms, glacier melt and floating sea ice.

18 Nov 2013

International study provides more solid measure of shrinking in polar ice sheets

UW News and Information, Hannah Hickey

Dozens of climate scientists have reconciled their measurements of ice sheet changes in Antarctica and Greenland during the past two decades. The results, published Nov. 29 in the journal Science, roughly halve the uncertainty and discard some conflicting observations.

29 Nov 2012

80-year-old aerial images show retreat of Greenland glaciers

Los Angeles Times, Thomas H. Maugh II

Long-abandoned 80-year-old aerial photographs found in a Danish basement document the unexpectedly rapid response of Greenland glaciers to changes in average temperatures.

30 May 2012

Data sheds light on speed of Greenland's glaciers

BBC News, Mark Kinver

Greenland's glaciers are not speeding up as much as previously thought, researchers have estimated. A team of US researchers based their findings on data stretching back to 2000-2001, collected from more than 200 outlet glaciers. "So far, on average, we are seeing about a 30% speed-up in 10 years," observed lead author Twila Moon.

4 May 2012

Greenland ice melt could raise seas less than feared, study says

CNN, Matt Smith

Greenland's glaciers are sliding into oceans at a faster pace than previously known, but they may contribute less to an expected rise in global sea level than feared, scientists reported Thursday.

4 May 2012

Greenland glaciers shrinking quickly, but not worst case

The Washington Post (Associated Press)

Greenland's glaciers are hemorrhaging ice at an increasingly faster rate but not at the breakneck pace that scientists once feared, a new study says.

3 May 2012

Greenland's ice melting more slowly than expected

NPR 'All Things Considered', RIchard Harris

The flow of Greenland glaciers to the sea has increased by 30 percent over the past decade. But Polar Science Center researchers report in Science that they aren't seeing a runaway meltdown of Greenland that some have feared.

3 May 2012

Increasing speed of Greenland glaciers gives new insight for rising sea level

UW Today, Vince Stricherz

Changes in the speed that ice travels in more than 200 outlet glaciers indicates that Greenland's contribution to rising sea level in the 21st century might be significantly less than the upper limits some scientists thought possible, a new study shows.

3 May 2012

Sea-level rise 'may not be as high as worst-case scenarios have predicted'

The Guardian, Damian Carrington

New research published in Science suggests that Greenland's glaciers are slipping into the sea more slowly than was previously thought. But scientists warn that ice loss still sped up by 30% and is driving rises in sea levels that endanger low-lying coasts around the world.

3 May 2012

Go to the poles in your imagination at annual Polar Science Weekend

University Week

Hands-on exhibits, UW polar experts and a bit of imagination will transport you and your family to the extreme environments of the Arctic and Antarctica later this month during Polar Science Weekend at Pacific Science Center.

11 Feb 2010

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center
Close

 

Close

 

Close