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Mike Bailey

Senior Principal Engineer

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering and Adjunct Assistant Professor, Urology

Email

bailey@apl.washington.edu

Phone

206-685-8618

Research Interests

Medical Ultrasound, Acoustic Cavitation

Biosketch

Dr. Bailey's current research focuses on the role of cavitation in lithotripsy (kidney stone treatment) and ultrasound surgery. He is the lead APL-UW researcher on two collaborative programs among the Laboratory, Indiana University, Moscow State University, and the California Institute of Technology to optimize acoustic waves to exploit bioeffects due to cavitation. Previously, he was one of the designers of a shock wave lithotripter developed at APL-UW to concentrate cavitation and damage on the kidney stone and not on the kidney tissue. Dr. Bailey joined APL-UW in 1996.

Education

B.S. Mechanical Engineering, Yale University, 1991

M.S. Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1994

Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1997

Videos

Mechanical Tissue Ablation with Focused Ultrasound

An experimental noninvasive surgery method uses nonlinear ultrasound pulses to liquefy tissue at remote target sites within a small focal region without damaging intervening tissues. A multi-institution, international team led by CIMU researchers is applying the method to the focal treatment of prostate tumors.

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19 Mar 2020

Boiling histotripsy utilizes sequences of millisecond-duration HIFU pulses with high-amplitude shocks that form at the focus by nonlinear propagation effects. Due to strong attenuation of the ultrasound energy at the shocks, these nonlinear waves rapidly heat tissue and generate millimeter-sized boiling bubbles at the focus within each pulse. Then the further interaction of subsequent shocks with the vapor cavity causes tissue disintegration into subcellular debris through the acoustic atomization mechanism.

The method was proposed at APL-UW in collaboration with Moscow State University (Russia) and now is being evaluated for various clinical applications. It has particular promise because of its important clinical advantages: the treatment of tissue volumes can be accelerated while sparing adjacent structures and not injuring intervening tissues; it generates precisely controlled mechanical lesions with sharp margins; the method can be implemented in existing clinical systems; and it can be used with real-time ultrasound imaging for targeting, guidance, and evaluation of outcomes. In addition, compared to thermal ablation, BH may lead to faster resorption of the liquefied lesion contents.

Characterizing Medical Ultrasound Sources and Fields

For every medical ultrasound transducer it's important to characterize the field it creates, whether for safety of imaging or efficacy of therapy. CIMU researchers measure a 2D acoustic pressure distribution in the beam emanating from the source transducer and then reconstruct mathematically the exact field on the surface of the transducer and in the entire 3D space.

11 Sep 2017

Burst Wave Lithotripsy: An Experimental Method to Fragment Kidney Stones

CIMU researchers are investigating a noninvasive method to fragment kidney stones using ultrasound pulses rather than shock waves. Consecutive acoustic cycles accumulate and concentrate energy within the stone. The technique can be 'tuned' to create small fragments, potentially improving the success rate of lithotripsy procedures.

20 Nov 2014

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Publications

2000-present and while at APL-UW

An investigation of elastic waves producing stone fracture in burst wave lithotripsy

Maxwell, A.D., B. MacConaghy, M.R. Bailey, and O.A. Sapozhnikov, "An investigation of elastic waves producing stone fracture in burst wave lithotripsy," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 147, 1607-1622, doi:, 2020.

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1 Mar 2020

Burst wave lithotripsy is a method to noninvasively fragment urinary stones by short pulses of focused ultrasound. In this study, physical mechanisms of stone fracture during burst wave lithotripsy were investigated. Photoelasticity imaging was used to visualize elastic wave propagation in model stones and compare results to numerical calculations. Epoxy and glass stone models were made into rectangular, cylindrical, or irregular geometries and exposed in a degassed water bath to focused ultrasound bursts at different frequencies. A high-speed camera was used to record images of the stone during exposure through a circular polariscope backlit by a monochromatic flash source. Imaging showed the development of periodic stresses in the stone body with a pattern dependent on frequency. These patterns were identified as guided wave modes in cylinders and plates, which formed standing waves upon reflection from the distal surfaces of the stone model, producing specific locations of stress concentration in the models. Measured phase velocities compared favorably to numerically calculated modes dependent on frequency and material. Artificial stones exposed to bursts produced cracks at positions anticipated by this mechanism. These results support guided wave generation and reflection as a mechanism of stone fracture in burst wave lithotripsy.

Burst wave lithotripsy and acoustic manipulation of stones

Chen, T.T., P.C. Samson, M.D. Sorensen, and M.R. Bailey, "Burst wave lithotripsy and acoustic manipulation of stones," Curr. Opin. Urol., 30, 149-156, doi:10.1097/MOU.0000000000000727, 2020.

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1 Mar 2020

Burst wave lithotripsy and ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones are novel, noninvasive emerging technologies to separately or synergistically fragment and reposition stones in an office setting. The purpose of this review is to discuss the latest refinements in technology, to update on testing of safety and efficacy, and to review future applications.

Burst wave lithotripsy produced consistent, small passable fragments through transcutaneous applications in a porcine model, while producing minimal injury and clinical trials are now underway. A more efficient ultrasonic propulsion design that can also deliver burst wave lithotripsy effectively repositioned 95% of stones in 18 human participants (18 of 19 kidneys) and clinical trials continue. Acoustic tractor beam technology is an emerging technology with promising clinical applications through the manipulation of macroscopic objects.

The goal of the reviewed work is an office-based system to image, fragment, and reposition urinary stones to facilitate their natural passage. The review highlights progress in establishing safety, effectiveness, and clinical benefit of these new technologies. The work is also anticipating challenges in clinical trials and developing the next generation of technology to improve on the technology as it is being commercialized today.

Pilot in vivo studies on transcutaneous boiling histotripsy in porcine liver and kidney

Khokhlova, T.D., G.R. Schade, Y.-N. Wang, S.V. Buravkov, V.P. Chernikov, J.C. Simon, F. Starr, A.D. Maxwell, M.R. Bailey, W. Kreider, and V.A. Khokhlova, "Pilot in vivo studies on transcutaneous boiling histotripsy in porcine liver and kidney," Sci. Rep., 9, 20176, doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56658-7, 2019.

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27 Dec 2019

Boiling histotripsy (BH) is a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) method for precise mechanical disintegration of target tissue using millisecond-long pulses containing shocks. BH treatments with real-time ultrasound (US) guidance allowed by BH-generated bubbles were previously demonstrated ex vivo and in vivo in exposed porcine liver and small animals. Here, the feasibility of US-guided transabdominal and partially transcostal BH ablation of kidney and liver in an acute in vivo swine model was evaluated for 6 animals. BH parameters were: 1.5 MHz frequency, 5–30 pulses of 1–10 ms duration per focus, 1% duty cycle, peak acoustic powers 0.9–3.8 kW, sonication foci spaced 1–1.5 mm apart in a rectangular grid with 5–15 mm linear dimensions. In kidneys, well-demarcated volumetric BH lesions were generated without respiratory gating and renal medulla and collecting system were more resistant to BH than cortex. The treatment was accelerated 10-fold by using shorter BH pulses of larger peak power without affecting the quality of tissue fractionation. In liver, respiratory motion and aberrations from subcutaneous fat affected the treatment but increasing the peak power provided successful lesion generation. These data indicate BH is a promising technology for transabdominal and transcostal mechanical ablation of tumors in kidney and liver.

More Publications

In The News

UW researchers and Florida middle school students form unusual bond over cosmic kidney stones

GeekWire, Kellie Schmitt

Eight students from a low-income sugarcane town in South Florida spent months on a robotics project tackling kidney stones in space. Across the country, researchers at the University of Washington were studying the exact problem for NASA, embarking on clinical trials that, so far, are proving successful. The disparate groups converged this month when the students reached out to APL-UW scientists.

23 Feb 2019

The mobile ultrasound revolution: How technology is expanding this medical tool to new frontiers

GeekWire, Kellie Schmitt

Decades after Seattle led the way in portable ultrasound development, the technology has made the leap to sleek, handheld devices that can connect to a smartphone. Increasingly, researchers say, ultrasound technology will be used not just for imaging but for actual treatment of disease.

23 Jan 2019

Rock Stars: UW Researchers Take a Whack at Kidney Stone Disease

Seattle Business (page 11), Stuart Glascock

Mike Bailey led a team to develop a system to avoid surgical procedures often associated with kidney stone disease. Using long pulses of sound waves, smaller stones are pushed from the kidney safely without anesthesia.

1 Feb 2017

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Inventions

Noninvasive Lung Ultrasound Sensor

Record of Invention Number: 48900

Mike Bailey

Disclosure

20 Mar 2020

Focused Ultrasound Apparatus and Methods of Use

Patent Number: 10,350,439

Adam Maxwell, Mike Bailey

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Patent

16 Jul 2019

Methods for diagnosing a pathologic tissue membrane, as well as a focused ultrasound apparatus and methods of treatment are disclosed to perform ureterocele puncture noninvasively using focused ultrasound-generated cavitation or boiling bubbles to controllably erode a hole through the tissue. An example ultrasound apparatus may include (a) a therapy transducer having a treatment surface, wherein the therapy transducer comprises a plurality of electrically isolated sections, (b) at least one concave acoustic lens defining a therapy aperture in the treatment surface of the therapy transducer, (c) an imaging aperture defined by either the treatment surface of the therapy transducer or by the at least one concave acoustic lens and (d) an ultrasound imaging probe axially aligned with a central axis of the therapy aperture.

Device and Method to Break Urinary Stones in Pets

Record of Invention Number: 48640

Mike Bailey, Dan Leotta, Elizabeth Lynch, Brian MacConaghy, Adam Maxwell

Disclosure

28 May 2019

More Inventions

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center
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